• If you are citizen of an European Union member nation, you may not use this service unless you are at least 16 years old.

  • Stop wasting time looking for files and revisions. Connect your Gmail, DriveDropbox, and Slack accounts and in less than 2 minutes, Dokkio will automatically organize all your file attachments. Learn more and claim your free account.


Ch02 Part 1-2 - Brief History (Research)

Page history last edited by ym@... 12 years, 11 months ago


Ch02 Part 1-2 - Brief History (Research)




1.      Web 1.0

a.      invention of internet

b.      first marketing / commercial website?

2.      Web 2.0

3.      Web 3.0

4.   Turning points in History of the Web




Indented text below a link are extracts from that link source.


1.      Web 1.0


·          Inventor of the internet


o         Tim Berners Lee – according to Wikipedia – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tim_Berners-Lee


§         Sir Timothy John Berners-Lee, OM, KBE, FRS, FREng, FRSA (born 8 June 1955) is a British developer who together with Robert Cailliau invented the World Wide Web. Sir Timothy Berners-Lee is the director of the World Wide Web Consortium (which oversees its continued development), and a senior researcher and holder of the 3Com Founders Chair at MIT's Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL).[1]

§         http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Cailliau - Robert Cailliau (b. 26 January 1947) together with Sir Tim Berners-Lee developed the World Wide Web.


o         Others also claimed to be inventors of internet


§          including Marshall McLuhan - http://www.livinginternet.com/i/ii_summary.htm

§         http://www.boutell.com/newfaq/history/inventednet.html


2007-02-23: No one person invented the Internet as we know it today. However, certain major figures contributed major breakthroughs: [ie the technologies that were the foundations of the internet]


§         http://www.boutell.com/newfaq/history/inventedweb.html


2003-06-30: the World Wide Web was invented by Tim Berners-Lee and Robert Cailliau in 1990. In 1989, while working at CERN (the European Organization for Nuclear Research), both men made proposals for hypertext systems. In 1990 they joined forces and wrote a joint proposal in which the term "World Wide Web" is used for the first time (originally without spaces). And in late 1990 and early 1991, Tim Berners-Lee wrote the first web browser.

Berners-Lee went on to found the World Wide Web Consortium, which seeks to standardize and improve World Wide Web-related things such as the HTML markup language in which web pages are written. Cailliau also made ongoing contributions to the Web. Robert Cailliau's a 1995 speech, "A Short History of the Web," is an excellent resource for those who want to understand the history in more detail.

ITim Berners-Lee invented both the HTML markup language and the HTTP protocol used to request and transmit web pages between web servers and web browsers.

For more information, see why was the World Wide Web invented, where was the World Wide Web invented and what was the first web browser?

BOUTELL.COM = see Contacts section below.


·          Internet and World Wide Web are not the same thing



o         And don't forget, the Internet and the World Wide Web are NOT the same thing. See What is the difference between the World Wide Web and the Internet? - http://www.boutell.com/newfaq/history/inventednet.html


005-07-28: All of the web sites in the world, taken together, make up the World Wide Web. The Internet is the worldwide network of interconnected computers, including both web servers and computers like the one on your desk that run web browser software. The Internet also carries other kinds of network traffic unrelated to the web.

Let's put it even more simply:

The Internet is the actual network. The World Wide Web is something you can do with it. You can do other things with it, too. Playing Quake or sending email both use the Internet but are not the World Wide Web.


o         Are "Internet" and "World Wide Web" the same thing? From Paul Gil,

Your Guide to Internet for Beginners. - http://netforbeginners.about.com/cs/technoglossary/f/Faq1.htm

The Internet is to the World Wide Web as Europe is to France. One is the container, the other is an item within the container.


There are four major concepts behind this important distinction:


Concept 1: The Big Infrastructure.


The "Internet" (or "Net" for short) is a massive public broadcast medium founded in the 1960's. At first glance, the Internet is an infrastructure of millions of cables and computers. Upon deeper inspection, the Internet is really a combination of several smaller digital "subnetworks" that share those cables and computers.


Concept 2: The Web is Really a Subnetwork.


The World Wide Web, or "Web" for short, is the single largest and most popular subnetwork on the Internet.


·          Worlds First Website


o         Wikipedia - The first Web site built was at CERN[4][5][6][7] and was first put online on 6 August 1991. It provided an explanation about what the World Wide Web was, how one could own a browser and how to set up a Web server. It was also the world's first Web directory, since Berners-Lee maintained a list of other Web sites apart from his own -


o         http://www.w3.org/History/19921103-hypertext/hypertext/WWW/TheProject.html - actual first website


o         The World Wide Web began as a CERN project called ENQUIRE, initiated by Tim Berners-Lee and Robert Cailliau in 1990. Berners-Lee and Cailliau were jointly honored by the ACM in 1995 for their contributions to the development of the World-Wide Web.

Based on the concept of hypertext, the project was aimed at facilitating sharing information among researchers. The first website went on-line in 1991. On 30 April 1993, CERN announced that the World Wide Web would be free to anyone. A copy of the original first webpage, created by Berners-Lee, is kept here.


2.      Web 2.0


·          Blog pioneer


Dave Winer, 51, pioneered the development of weblogs, syndication (RSS), podcasting, outlining, and web content management software; former contributing editor at Wired Magazine, research fellow at Harvard Law School, entrepreneur, and investor in web media companies.  Permalink to this paragraph - http://www.scripting.com/stories/2007/02/21/daveWinerBio.html


·          Weblogs: a history and perspective


Rebecca’s Pocket 07.09. 2000 - http://www.rebeccablood.net/essays/weblog_history.html - In 1998 there were just a handful of sites of the type that are now identified as weblogs (so named by Jorn Barger in December 1997). Jesse James Garrett, editor of Infosift, began compiling a list of "other sites like his" as he found them in his travels around the web. In November of that year, he sent that list to Cameron Barrett. Cameron published the list on Camworld, and others maintaining similar sites began sending their URLs to him for inclusion on the list. Jesse's 'page of only weblogs' lists the 23 known to be in existence at the beginning of 1999.


·          Timeline of history of blogging  http://nymag.com/news/media/15971/ - New York Magazine


January 1994

Swarthmore student Justin Hall creates first blog ever, Links.net.

December 1997

Online diarist Jorn Barger coins the term “Weblog” for “logging the Web.”

April 1999

Programmer Peter Merholz shortens “Weblog” to “blog.”

August 1999

Blogger rolls out the first popular, free blog-creation service.


·          Justin Hall, credited with being the world’s first blogger,  bows out of blogging aged 30 - http://sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/c/a/2005/02/20/MNGBKBEJO01.DTL - San Franciso Chronicle 20.02.2005


Hall began posting online in 1994 while working as a student intern at San Francisco-based Wired magazine in the summer of his sophomore year at Swarthmore College in Pennsylvania. He returned the next summer to work with technology icon Howard Rheingold (author of "Virtual Community" and "Smart Mobs").

From then on, his life became deeply connected with his work as a blogger -- and this was before the word was even created.

[The article also writes of early bloggers taking a break/ retiring eg William Gibson]


·          Weblogs Inc - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weblogs,_Inc. according to Wikipedia


Weblogs, Inc. was founded by Brian Alvey and Jason Calacanis[1] with an investment from Mark Cuban. The company was founded in the wake of Calacanis' Silicon Alley Reporter magazine.

By early 2004 Weblogs, Inc. and Gawker Media were establishing the two most important templates for networked blog empires. At that time Weblogs, Inc. consisted of a few dozen blogs designed for professional readership, all residing as subdomains of weblogsinc.com. The exception was Engadget, a stand-alone site covering new technology in blog format. Engadget was co-founded by Peter Rojas, the former editor of Gizmodo in the Gawker Media network.

By the end of 2004 and continuing through the start of 2006, Weblogs, Inc. expanded its focus to consumer topics and launched a series of domain-specific sites independent of the weblogsinc.com domain but sharing the same network-wide blogroll. At the start of 2006, 26 stand-alone sites populated the network, and over 50 subdomain blogs were in operation. Retired blogs and event blogs, archived and visible on the network, numbered 19. A few of the company principals maintain personal blogs in the blogroll, and the home page is maintained in blog format. Entrepreneur Mark Cuban, an early investor in the company, keeps his personal weblog on the Weblogs, Inc. network.


·          Pioneer blogger – Jorn Barger


o         Wired article - http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/13.07/posts.html?pg=6  - Robot Wisdom on the Street  July 2005

Jorn Barger. It takes me a moment to recognize the name. Barger is an online legend I've been following for a decade. He was the unstoppable Usenet poster who could carry on simultaneous debates about Ibsen, Chomsky, artificial intelligence, and Kate Bush. He was the keeper of the James Joyce FAQ. Barger's prolific posting made him famous, if not popular, in the protoblogosphere.

Barger crossed over from Usenet to the Web in 1997 and set up his own site, which he dubbed the Robot Wisdom Weblog. He began logging his online discoveries as he stumbled on them - hence "weblog." I barely understood what he was talking about, and still I read him giddily. Barger gave a name to the fledgling phenomenon and set the tone for a million blogs to come. Robot Wisdom bounced unapologetically from high culture to low, from silly to serious, from politics to porn.



·          Usenet/ newsgroups


Precursor to blogs; hot in the ‘80s; newsgroups = forum/ discussion group/ message boards; string of email-style postings; focus is on topic/ group discussion rather than one main author and comments to the post


o         What is Usenet  - 28 Dec 1999 -  http://www.faqs.org/faqs/usenet/what-is/part1/ - Usenet is a world-wide distributed discussion system.  It consists of a set of "newsgroups" with names that are classified hierarchically by subject.  "Articles" or "messages" are "posted" to these newsgroups by people on computers with the appropriate software -- these articles are then broadcast to other interconnected computer systems via a wide variety of networks./// Usenet is the set of people who exchange articles tagged with one or more universally-recognized labels, called "newsgroups" (or "groups" for short).


o          Wikipedia - Usenet is one of the oldest computer network communications systems still in widespread use. It was established in 1980, following experiments from the previous year, over a decade before the World Wide Web was introduced and the general public got access to the Internet. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Usenet


o         Aside from the Web, the Internet also encompasses over 100 other protocols or languages for running services. Some of these include the Post Office Protocol (POP) email system; User Network (USENET) newsgroups; instant messaging (IM); telnet; file transfer protocol (FTP); and Internet Relay Chat (IRC). – wisegeek.com http://www.wisegeek.com/are-the-internet-and-the-world-wide-web-the-same-thing.htm


o         Timeline of Usenet - http://www.google.com/googlegroups/archive_announce_20.html Googe Groups


o         Newsgroups, also referred to as forums, have been around almost since the dawn of the Internet. They were originally developed so that scientists could post questions (and answers) to each other. Today, newsgroups resemble bulletin boards, where people discuss subjects of mutual interest by posting commments. Newsgroups revolve around specific topics, such as wireless technology or organic gardening. You can read what others have written and reply your own thoughts. http://www.learnthenet.com/english/html/26nwsgrp.htm


o         Usenet newsgroups are electronic discussion groups in which you can share information and opinions with people all over the world. In Usenet newsgroups, you can reply to articles you have read and publish ("post") your own articles for others to read. Newsgroups differ widely in subject and style, ranging from casual chat to serious discourse. http://kb.iu.edu/data/aebt.html Indiana University Knowledge Base


Web 2.0


·          What Is Web 2.0: Design Patterns and Business Models for the Next Generation of Software by Tim O'Reilly 09/30/2005 - http://www.oreillynet.com/pub/a/oreilly/tim/news/2005/09/30/what-is-web-20.html


o        The concept of "Web 2.0" began with a conference brainstorming session between O'Reilly and MediaLive International.

o        You can visualize Web 2.0 as a set of principles and practices that tie together a veritable solar system of sites that demonstrate some or all of those principles, at a varying distance from that core.

o        Let's close, therefore, by summarizing what we believe to be the core competencies of Web 2.0 companies:

§         Services, not packaged software, with cost-effective scalability

§         Control over unique, hard-to-recreate data sources that get richer as more people use them

§         Trusting users as co-developers

§         Harnessing collective intelligence

§         Leveraging the long tail through customer self-service

§         Software above the level of a single device

§         Lightweight user interfaces, development models, AND business models


·          Web 2.0 according to Wikipedia - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_2.0


The phrase Web 2.0 refers to a perceived second generation of web-based communities and hosted services — such as social-networking sites, wikis and folksonomies — which aim to facilitate collaboration and sharing between users. The term became popular following the first O'Reilly Media Web 2.0 conference in 2004,[1] and has since become widely adopted.

Although the term suggests a new version of the World Wide Web, it does not refer to an update to Web technical specifications, but to changes in the ways software developers and end-users use the web as a platform. According to Tim O'Reilly, "Web 2.0 is the business revolution in the computer industry caused by the move to the internet as platform, and an attempt to understand the rules for success on that new platform."[2]

Some technology experts, notably Tim Berners-Lee, have questioned whether one can use the term in a meaningful way, since many of the technology components of "Web 2.0" have existed since the early days of the Web.[3]


3.      Web 3.0


·          Web 3.0 = the Semantic Web


PC Magazine - http://www.pcmag.com/article2/0,1759,2102852,00.asp


To many, Web 3.0 is something called the Semantic Web, a term coined by Tim Berners-Lee, the man who invented the (first) World Wide Web. In essence, the Semantic Web is a place where machines can read Web pages much as we humans read them, a place where search engines and software agents can better troll the Net and find what we're looking for. "It's a set of standards that turns the Web into one big database," says Nova Spivack, CEO of Radar Networks, one of the leading voices of this new-age Internet.

But some are skeptical about whether the Semantic Web—or at least, Berners-Lee's view of it—will actually take hold. They point to other technologies capable of reinventing the online world as we know it, from 3D virtual worlds to Web-connected bathroom mirrors. Web 3.0 could mean many things, and for Netheads, every single one is a breathtaking proposition.


·          Semantic Web/ 3.0  – more comment/ info

o        The essence of the Semantic Web is the development of a language through which computers can share meaning and hence operate at a higher, more human level of intelligence. Freebase: the Web 3.0 machine - March 09, 2007 Nicholas Carr on his blog Rough Type - http://www.roughtype.com/archives/2007/03/freebase_and_we.php .


o       Welcome Web 3.0 - http://www.roughtype.com/archives/2006/11/welcome_web_30.php - Markoff's piece is a thought-provoking one. As he describes it, Web 3.0 will be about mining "meaning," rather than just data, from the web by using software to discover associations among far-flung bits of information:

the Holy Grail for developers of the semantic Web is to build a system that can give a reasonable and complete response to a simple question like: “I’m looking for a warm place to vacation and I have a budget of $3,000. Oh, and I have an 11-year-old child.” Under today’s system, such a query can lead to hours of sifting — through lists of flights, hotel, car rentals — and the options are often at odds with one another. Under Web 3.0, the same search would ideally call up a complete vacation package that was planned as meticulously as if it had been assembled by a human travel agent.

 But there's also a creepy side to 3.0, which Markoff only hints at. While it will be easy for you to mine meaning about vacations and other stuff, it will also be easy for others to mine meaning about you. In fact, Web 3.0 promises to give marketers, among others, an uncanny ability to identify, understand and manipulate us - without our knowledge or awareness. If you'd like a preview, watch Dan Frankowski's presentation You Are What You Say and Oren Etzioni's presentation All I Really Need to Know I Learned from Google, and then connect the dots. (Thanks to Greg Linden for those links.)



Nicholas Carr = A former executive editor of the Harvard Business Review, Nicholas Carr is an acclaimed business writer and speaker whose work centers on strategy, innovation, and technology. http://www.nicholasgcarr.com/info.shtml 


·          Entrepreneurs See a Web Guided by Common Sense By JOHN MARKOFF Published: November 12, 2006 – New York Times - http://www.nytimes.com/2006/11/12/business/12web.html?ex=1189396800&en=5de9aca658d32777&ei=5070

Their goal is to add a layer of meaning on top of the existing Web that would make it less of a catalog and more of a guide — and even provide the foundation for systems that can reason in a human fashion.

But in the future, more powerful systems could act as personal advisers in areas as diverse as financial planning, with an intelligent system mapping out a retirement plan for a couple, for instance, or educational consulting, with the Web helping a high school student identify the right college.


·          Web 3.0 = Business applications




November 29th, 2005  - What to expect from Web 3.0 - Posted by Phil Wainewright @ 1:32 pm


Web 3.0 isn’t just about shopping, entertainment and search. It’s also going to deliver a new generation of business applications that will see business computing converge on the same fundamental on-demand architecture as consumer applications.


[Below = ]a brief topology of Web 3.0. It’s divided into three (and a half) distinct layers:

API services form the foundation layer. These are the raw hosted services that have powered Web 2.0 and will become the engines of Web 3.0 — Google’s search and AdWords APIs, Amazon’s affiliate APIs, a seemingly infinite ocean of RSS feeds, a multitude of functional services, such as those included in the StrikeIron Web Services Marketplace, and many other examples. Some of the providers, like Google and Amazon, are important players, but there is a huge long tail of smaller providers. One of the most significant characteristics of this layer is that it is a commodity layer. As Web 3.0 matures, an almost perfect market will emerge and squeeze out virtually all of the profit margin from the highest-volume services — and sometimes squeeze them into loss-leading or worse.

Aggregation services form the middle layer. These are the intermediaries that take some of the hassle out of locating all those raw API services by bundling them together in useful ways. Obvious examples today are the various RSS aggregators, and emerging web services marketplaces like the StrikeIron service. I’ll have a lot more to say about these emerging platforms in several of my posts. There will be some lucrative businesses operating in this layer, but in my view it’s not where most of the big money will be made.

Application services form the top layer, and this is where I believe the biggest, most durable profits will be found. These will not be like the established application categories we are used to, such as CRM, ERP or office, but a new class of composite applications that bring together functionality from multiple services to help users achieve their objectives in a flexible, intuitive and self-evident way. I’ll have much more to say about these applications when I write about some of the companies I’ve mentioned in more detail. But an interesting example just surfaced in Swivel, Halsey Minor’s new venture, which Dan Farber has been covering in his blog this week. Dan quotes one enthusiastic early user who describes the ‘wow’ moment of starting to use an application and discovering that it delivers utility he barely even knew existed. To me, that’s a fundamental characteristic of a Web 3.0 application.

Serviced clients are the ‘and-a-half’ layer I mentioned earlier. There is a role for client-side logic in the Web 3.0 landscape, but users will expect it to be maintained and managed on their behalf, which is why I’ve chosen to call these clients ’serviced’. Whether those clients are based on browser technology or on Windows technology is moot point that I shall also be returning to. After all, everyone will want to know what role Microsoft might play in Web 3.0.


·          A 'more revolutionary' Web By Victoria Shannon Published: WEDNESDAY, MAY 24, 2006 - http://www.iht.com/articles/2006/05/23/business/web.php


In this version of the Web, sites, links, media and databases are "smarter" and able to automatically convey more meaning than those of today.

For example, Berners-Lee said, a Web site that announces a conference would also contain programming with a lot of related information embedded within it.

A user could click on a link and immediately transfer the time and date of the conference to his or her electronic calendar. The location - address, latitude, longitude, perhaps even altitude - could be sent to his or her GPS device, and the names and biographies of others invited could be sent to an instant messenger list.

In other words, the "mark-up" language behind each Web page would be cross-referenced into countless other databases, once developers agreed on a common set of definitions.


·          Wikipedia : Web 3.0 = database/ semantic web; geospacial web & 3D - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_3


Web 3.0 is a term that has been coined with different meanings to describe the evolution of Web usage and interaction along several separate paths. These include transforming the Web into a database, a move towards making content accessible by multiple non-browser applications, the leveraging of artificial intelligence technologies, the Semantic web, the Geospatial Web,[citation needed] or the 3D web.


Geospatial web = the merging of geographical (location-based) information with the abstract information that currently dominates the Internet. This would create an environment where one could search for things based on location instead of by keyword only – i.e. “What is Here?”./// Some see the goal of the Geoweb to be the creation of fully immersive digital environments, or virtual reality that mirror our own reality. This would have the effect of greatly improving our understanding of the world and its processes, allowing us to better manage our resources, find nearby services, meet people, and have fun. The term may be closely or exactly related to the meaning of Digital Earth as proposed by Al Gore.  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geoweb


·          A Smarter Web by John Borland 19.03.2007 – Technology Review published by MIT - http://www.technologyreview.com/Infotech/18395/page2/


The 3.0 moniker has its critics. Miller himself, like many in his research community, frowns at the idea of applying old-fashioned software release numbers to a Web that evolves continually and on many fronts.


Part 2 of the article -http://www.technologyreview.com/Infotech/18396/page2/ -

"What we're trying to do with the Semantic Web is build a digital Aristotle," says Greaves, now senior research program manager at Paul Allen's investment company, Vulcan, which is sponsoring a large-scale artificial-intelligence venture called Project Halo that will use Semantic Web data-representation techniques. "We want to take the Web and make it more like a database, make it a system that can answer questions, not just get a pile of documents that might hold an answer."


·          3D Web


o        Analysts remain divided over whether 3D on the Web will be of much interest to a general audience. Marketers have reported success with 3D retail environments in which products can be rotated and manipulated in three dimensions. Other uses include multiuser games, e-learning applications, data visualization and warehousing, and collaborative design and engineering. http://news.com.com/2100-1023-844985.html - CDNet News Bringing 3D to the Web - By Paul Festa

Staff Writer Published: February 26, 2002,


o        Web as Virtual World – Businessweek 13 Aug 2007 - http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/07_33/b4046064.htm


Second Life creator Linden Lab, IBM, and a bevy of additional companies are moving toward the day when you can stroll around a 3D Web--and not just their own sites--using a virtual replica of yourself that you've created. They are working to establish technical standards, open to all programmers, that would allow the entire Internet to become a galaxy of connected virtual worlds.


o        Potential for education, therapy etc – http://ialja.blogspot.com/2007/03/thinking-about-3d-web-or-is-it-web-30.html 


Virtual worlds can in my opinion to some extent also be used to learn and practice non-verbal communication./// I also think that the therapeutic potential of Second Life is very important.


My name is Alja Sulčič and I am the co-founder and virtual community expert at Artesia, a Slovenian start-up company which specializes in virtual communities. She also has  a number of other articles on Web 3.0 and 3D Web on her blog. LinkedIn = http://www.linkedin.com/in/ialja



Turning points in History of the Web



# 10 Web Moments that changed the world - according to the Webby Awards - http://www.webbyawards.com/press/webby_top_10.php


# Webby Awards - http://www.webbyawards.com/about/index.php


"The Webby Awards is the leading international award honoring excellence on the Internet. Established in 1996 during the Web's infancy, the Webbys are presented by The International Academy of Digital Arts and Sciences, a 550-member body of leading Web experts, business figures, luminaries, visionaries and creative celebrities. "




Comments (0)

You don't have permission to comment on this page.